Friday, May 15, 2020
Assignment: Literature review Topic: Addiction to alcohol Instructor: Vanda Wark Literature Review Definition of alcoholism: According to the American medical association alcoholism is a chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial and environmental factors influencing development and manifestations. Alcoholism has had a tremendous impact on the human condition and its relationship to society. The evolution of alcoholism, its behavior and quality of life impact will be addressed; as well as treatments and fiscal impact in the literature review. Ã¢â¬Å"Alcoholism is a complex disorder with many pathways leading to its development. Genetic and other biological factors are likely involved in the emergence of alcohol dependence, along with cognitive, behavioral, temperament, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Alcohol use patterns, including alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, are familial in nature (cf. Heath et al., 1997; cf. Kendler, Heath, Neale, Kessler, Eaves, 1992; Hesselbrock, 1995). That is, similar styles of alcohol use and the presence of alcoholism are often found within the same family, running from parent to child and across multiple generations of biologically related individuals. However, many other traits or behaviors, such as religious or political affiliation, which have little or no biological basis and, therefore, cannot be under heavy genetic control, also run in families. While genetic and other biological factors cannot fullyShow MoreRelatedNot All of Us Are Saints: An Analysis of the Topic of Alcoholism888 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction In this short essay, the author will analyze the topic of alcoholism in Not All of Us Are Saints. It is the authors contention that only community based efforts such as Dr. David Hilfikers stand a chance of stemming the tide for this at risk population that has so much social stigma attached to it. For this purpose, we will examine studies in which community based programs help to alleviate the problems of alcoholics. Analysis The book begins with the tale of how Dr. HilfikerRead MoreDeviance And Alcoholism : A Socially Constructed, Communicated, And Learned Deviance1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDeviance and Alcoholism Alcoholism is a problem experienced almost everywhere in the world and there are efforts taken by the societies to control it. This requires deep understanding of its nature, causes, effects and other encouraging factors. Alcoholism has been perceived as a medical problem since it could be treated, but recent concepts label it as a social deviant behavior. This paper will discuss about the alcoholism as a socially constructed, communicated, and learned deviance problem ratherRead More Drugs and Alcohol Essay1107 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesprohibited pscychoactive drugs. American leaders attempted to do the same to alcohol with Prohibition in the 1920?s. In any society, drug use plays a part in the people?s culture. Whether it be a native taking hallucinogens for a religious ceremony, a destitute alcoholic drinking on a city street, or a group of teenagers smoking marijuana, drugs and alcohol have the same effects in any culture. The question of ?why do people use drugs? has been a dilemm a which American medical experts and government leadersRead MoreSubstance Abuse Paper1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswith many people falling victims. This paper concentrates on substance abuse and addictive disorders in the African American population. When it comes to the scope of the problem regarding the extent to which it affects the people, depression, poverty, and stress is closely connected to alcohol abuse and appears to be the same for both men and women (American Psychological Association, 2000). The National Institutes of Health (NIH) reports that the risks of substance abuse, its consequences, treatmentRead More The Many Benefits of Medicinal Marijuana Essay827 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestraditional styles of science. A controversy our leaders need to examine is the medical use of marijuana. Instead of banning marijuana and ignoring the public voice, our representatives need to examine the facts and effects of marijuana for medical use. Like Copernicus idea that revolutionized science, changing the way we treat our sick and suffering will benefit our society. The effects of legalizing marijuana for only medical purposes will stop unnecessary legal action and it will change the way doctorsRead MoreKatherine Moran. Health Psychology Research Review. May1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof the 60 percent of American college students who drink regularly, two-thirds of these students also report engaging in frequent binge-drinking (NIAAA, 2015). While students may be aware of some of the s hort-term consequences of engaging in these binge-drinking behaviors, which can range from being hungover, to showing poor academic performance, to assault and/or violence, public health concerns stemming from excessive use of alcohol often have far reaching, long term effects. Alcohol dependenceRead MoreAlcoholism And The Human Body1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAlcoholism and the Human Body. Anita Samu Absher Southern New Hampshire University Abstract Alcoholism and the Human Body. Ã¢â¬Å"Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is an intoxicating ingredient found in beer, wine, and liquor. Alcohol is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starchesÃ¢â¬ (cdc.gov, 2014) and it has been part of our society for thousands of years. It is part of most social occasions we participate in, it is often celebrate an event or even mourn a loss but this substance can alsoRead MoreQuestion One. Alcohol Use Disorders (Aud) Is A Health Condition1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswith alcohol consumption. This disorder is related to alcoholism, or alcohol abuse. The symptoms of AUD include cravings, a strong need to have a drink during the week or weekends, loss of control involving not being able to stop drinking, feeling out of control, shaking, anxiety, withdrawals, and nausea. Alcohol tolerance is the most significant symptom of AUD because an alcoholic will drink an enormous amount of alcohol to feel the effects. Tolerance has a lot to do with the persons drinking historyRead Mo reAlcohol Abuse Within Native American Societies Essay1303 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslives, relationships and families all over the world. Native Americans seem to have suffered immensely by it. Since the coming of the Englishmen and the introduction of new knowledge and tools Native people have been trying to hold on to their own culture and their own way of life. Unfortunately with them came new items for consumption, alcohol was one of the main ingredients to the internal downfall of Native populations. Native American populations suffer greatly due to the ongoing epidemic of substanceRead More Alcohol Essay1434 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat is alcoholism? 2. How do people become alcoholics? 3. What are the effects of alcoholism, on both the alcoholic and their family? 4. How do you diagnose alcoholism? 5. Is there a cure for alcoholics? 6. What is the treatment? What is Alcoholism? Alcoholism can be defined as the dependency on alcohol; addiction to alcohol. It is a chronic disease, th is disease called alcoholism is progressive and potentially fatal. Ã¢â¬Å" In 1966 the American Medical Association (AMA) declared Alcoholism a disease
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Arguably, two very impressive civilizations, Egypt and Sumer, took shape around the same time. This proximity provided them with remarkable similarities, yet a copious amount of differences still grew between the two areas. Largely due to their access to resources and environment, the communities grew in very different manners, which led to differences in political development, as well as their leaders, which in turn affected their overall success. In regards to Sumer, it flourished in the area of Mesopotamia, or as the Greeks called it, the Ã¢â¬Å"Land between RiversÃ¢â¬ (Cole, et al 7). Specifically, these rivers were the Tigris and Euphrates. Despite being surrounded by waterways, Sumer existed in an extremely arid climate, which left the soil sandy and summer weather unbearably hot. The rivers presented a series of problems. Not only were the Tigris and EuphratesÃ¢â¬ noted for their violence and unpredictablyÃ¢â¬ , but also Ã¢â¬Å"both were prone to floodingÃ¢â¬ (Cole, et al 7). Despite these adversities, Sumer still managed to grow into the Ã¢â¬Å"first urban societyÃ¢â¬ (Cole, et al 7). Residents in this area quickly learned simply irrigation tactics, overtime these channels became more complex and allowed for decent farming. Ã¢â¬Å"They also constructed dikes and levees to control the seasonal floodingÃ¢â¬ (Cole, et al 8). As the Sumerians learned how to control the environmental elements that challenged them, the population in the urban areas began to grow. Specifically, by 3100 B.C.E., the area of Uruk hadShow MoreRelatedEssay on Egypt, Mesopotamia and Ancient Greek Civilizations1810 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMichael Jones 10/5/2012 Cabrera Egypt, Mesopotamia and Ancient Greek Civilizations The Ancient Egyptians, Mesopotamia, and Greeks were some of the oldest complex societies, although similar in many aspects. Mesopotamia is located in the Fertile Crescent, land in and between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers usually known as modern day Iraq and Eastern Syria.(24) In Egypt, the Nile River creates a fertile valley which is rich in nutrients and essential to their survival. The Nile flows fromRead MoreRiver Dynasties in China3135 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagessociety that shaped Chinese civilization. WHY IT MATTERS NOW The culture that took root during ancient times still affects Chinese ways of life today. TERMS NAMES Ã¢â¬ ¢ loess Ã¢â¬ ¢ oracle bone Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mandate of Heaven Ã¢â¬ ¢ dynastic cycle Ã¢â¬ ¢ feudalism SETTING THE STAGE The walls of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s first cities were built 4,000 years ago. This was at least a thousand years after the walls of Ur, the great pyramids of Egypt, and the planned cities of the Indus Valley were built. Unlike the other three river valleyRead MoreArgumentative Essay on Telivision Is the Leading Cause of Violence in Todays Society9353 Words Ã |Ã 38 Pages and the Punjab, where locals talked of an ancient city extending thirteen cosses (about 25 miles), but no archaeological interest would attach to this for nearly a century. In 1856, British engineers John and William Brunton were laying the East Indian Railway Company line connecting the cities of Karachi and Lahore. John wrote: I was much exercised in my mind how we were to get ballast for the line of the railway. They were told of an ancient ruined city near the lines, called Brahminabad
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question- A 6-year-old develops a high fever accompanied by violent vomiting and convulsions while at school. The child is rushed to a nearby hospital. The attending physician makes a diagnosis of meningitis and requests permission to initiate treatment from the parents. The childs parents are divorced. The mother, who is not the biological parent of the child, has primary custody. She is a Christian Scientist who insists that no medical treatment be offered for religious reasons. The biological father, who resides in another state, is also contacted. He insists that treatment be given and seeks independent consultation from another physician. (i)What is the ethical dilemma here? (ii)Describe the decision-making model you selected from your readings. (iii)How would you resolve this dilemma using the model? Answer Patient consent is one of the important concerns that is necessary to be included in the scope of routine health care practice. The justification of concerning the patient autonomy and consent is crucial according to the fundamentals of holistic approach of nursing. The scope of taking consent for the treatment and care plan is important as because it provides opportunity to the patient to take decision with respect to suitable health care plan in accordance to self-judgment and financial prospect of patient itself. The concern is more effective when it comes to taking consent for patient having serious or emergency condition. Similarly, in case of childcare, it is more important to consider the decision and consent of parents, family member or any consent carer. The reason is associated with the age factor of children, and hence they are not considered to be mature for taking decision with respect to their health condition and situation upto the age of 18 years old. The ethical meas ure is applicable in many of the developed as well as developing countries (Uhl, 2013). According to the give case, the consent with respect to treatment plan and care intervention is necessary to be taken from the parents of the child, owing to the age factor. The child was found to suffer from meningitis and having a serious time with vomiting and convulsion related signs. It is hence the requisite concern is to provide care and treatment, in order to control the situation and condition. Furthermore, the given case study was found to be in dilemma, as because the parents of the child are divorced and there lies certain cultural and spiritual believed form both the parents. Particularly, the mother of the child (who is not the biological mother) is a Christian Scientist and based on her cultural believe she express the concern of using no medication related intervention for the concerned health issue. On the other hand, the father of the child is agreeing with the application of any particular medication and care plan, with the objective to solve the health concern as soon as possible. The ethical dilemma thus exist is with reference to the adoption of care and treatment plan for the children, which should not only provide relief to the children, but should also provide and ensure the satisfaction with respect to the concerned parents. It is hence the process of decision-making and providing care support to the child is solemnly dependent on the nurse. The use of wisdom and evidence based nursing practice is thus required in the present case. The process of decision making is thus dependent on the basis of framing an effective care plan, which should be designed with following mentioned points: Patient assessment should be carried out with respect to the interrogation to school staff, teachers, friends and children itself (if possible) Possible suggestions and effective means of treatment that are available with respect to the available resources and workforce of the health care settings should be analyzed and framed in the hand over. An immediate discussion should be carried out in presence of senior nurse, physician and other relevant health care professionals. For the purpose of taking consent, immediate contact to the parents should be taken. Since there is an ethical dilemma, where the mother (not biological mother) and the father of the children are differing with respect to the spiritual and cultural belief for the adoption of any medication and treatment plan, thus the concern should be made with respect to discussion with relevant expert in the field. Use of effective and efficient conversation skills is more essential, where the job responsibility of nurse lies in explanation and advocating the benefits of medication and related intervention to the parents. Furthermore, based on the judgment by the health care professionals and relevant experts in the field, the care plan should be initiated. The possible way for the resolving of ethical concern is the use of effective communication skills. It is hence the counseling of the mother should be done with the help of counseling member and other health care professionals. Possible means of verbal and non-verbal communication should be made into utilization while attempting to explain the concern to the mother. Moreover, it is also important for the health care professionals, especially nurse to show relevant statistics and evidences that are relevant to the present case. In conjunction to obtaining the consent and permission for the proceeding of the care and treatment plan, it can be considered that one of the parent (actual father) have mentioned the usage and decision in conjunction to the opinion of related expert, which should be followed by the nurses. It is hence, the details of the intervention, clinical decision and support for using evidence in the care plan should be recorded and that can be used for evidence based nursing approach and training in the near future. In particular, to the treatment and care plan, it is important to consider the medication and other related needs in accordance to the ethical and legislative concern for the medication management. This concern should be properly diagnosed, analyzed and recorded for the usage of oxygen support, intravenous fluid administration, and use of steroids for any swelling. The transfer to the intensive care unit for the children thus should be based on the decision-making and judgment of the patient. Concisely, it can be said that the usage of effective communication skills, identification of appropriate and effective treatment regime and wisdom of the nursing approach is most essential part to be considered according to the concerned case study. The part of heritage and ethical dilemma can be further resolved with respect to explaining and advocating the emergency of time and need of the medication to the parents. Furthermore, to avoid any conflict in utilizing the mentioned care plan model , it is important to make the record of clinical-decision, decision support and possible reason for the adoption of wisdom in the care plan. References Barry, M. J., Edgman-Levitan, S. (2012). Shared decision makingthe pinnacle of patient-centered care. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(9), 780-781. Lgar, F., Stacey, D., Pouliot, S., Gauvin, F. P., Desroches, S., Kryworuchko, J., ... Graham, I. D. (2011). Interprofessionalism and shared decision-making in primary care: a stepwise approach towards a new model. Journal of interprofessional care, 25(1), 18-25. Uhl, T., Fisher, K., Docherty, S. L., Brandon, D. H. (2013). Insights into Patient and FamilyÃ Centered Care Through the Hospital Experiences of Parents. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, Neonatal Nursing, 42(1), 121-131.
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
The room was silent for a moment while we all finished our lunches. It was the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s third day in New York City and it was the day that everybody was going to present their speeches to the group. Circular tables filled the room and surrounded the podium that had been placed up front so everybody could see it. Ã¢â¬Å"LetÃ¢â¬â¢s start sharing our speeches!Ã¢â¬ said the Military Youth of the Year representative. One by one we approached the podium, some nervous, some not. I was one of the nervous ones. Those of us who were sitting were watching and listening intently to the story of each youth that went up. The energy in the room was positive, safe and it solidified that we were in this process together. Suggestions were given to each youth by both their peers and mentors.When I stepped to the podium and gave my speech, one of the mentors suggested, Ã¢â¬Å"When youÃ¢â¬â¢re on stage, try not to use you hands to talk or to tap the podium,Ã¢â¬ and another said, Ã¢â¬Å"Nobody knows what your speech is going to be, so if you forget something, itÃ¢â¬â¢s okay. We will write a custom essay sample on Losing is Never Really Losing or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Ã¢â¬ This feedback to lead everybody in the group to success and built a trust that brought us together as a group. The next day was competition day and it was time to prepare for the event that was to unveil the new Northeast Youth of the Year.I walked through the giant ballroom doors of the hotel and into a blue tinted room. The name Ã¢â¬Å"Boys Girls ClubÃ¢â¬ was projected on the walls as music played that reminded me of the Hunger Games. The ballroom was filled with chairs and people as media staff ran around theroom, making sure everything was ready for the event. As I stood behind the stage in New York City representing the Vermont state Youth of the Year, I felt a sense of nervousness and excitement. It had been four long days that lead up to this moment, and my new friends and I were ready to find out who was going to be named the new, Northeast Regional Youth of the Year. Fifteen of us stood in acramped space behind the stage that kept getting smaller and smaller with everybreath taken. Nerves filled the room as sweat glistened on the faces of not only us youth, but our mentors as well. With nervous smiles on our faces, we waited with high anticipation and when my new friend from New Jersey, AlexiaÃ¢â¬â¢s name was called to the stage,joy filled the room. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t win, but I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have felt happier for Alexia. One of the girls who had become my sister after only four days, had just won the name of the Northeast Regional Youth of the Year. Three essays, three letters of recommendation, more drafts of a speech than I can count, and many trainings lead me and fifteen other youth, to those incredible moments in New York. When I arrived in New York City, I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize that fifteen strangers were going to soon become my brothers and sisters after only four days and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what made losing so easy. But after endless days of work, training, and exploration, nothing was more important than my new family. Through all of my experiences, including visiting ABC studios, British Airways, and flying to Georgia for a leadership training, those fifteen amazing youth were by my side. They went through the same process that I did, and supported me as I supported them. The Youth of the Year process is very difficult and requires hard work, dedication, and drive, but through this process I have learned more about myself than I ever thought possible at the age of seventeen. I learned that my drive for success is never ending, but more importantly that to me, losing is never actually losing.
Thursday, March 12, 2020
World Issues Essays - Demography, Population, Demographic Economics World Issues There are many important world issues. Among these issues, we have studied the rapid growth of the world, which was the topic of critical importance. The extraordinary rapid increase of the world population constitutes a serious problem in which no citizen of the world can remain indifferent. The public has become increasingly aware of the dramatic rise in the rate of the world population growth during the three centuries of the modern era. There is a tendency on the part of many to see rapid rates on population growth as giving rise to a barrier on a road to progress. This may threaten peace and stability in the world because the population growth may make it impossible to meet in a timely fashion, the reasonable aspirations of hundreds of millions of people in the underdeveloped countries. During the first three centuries of the modern era, from 1690 - 1990, the world population has multiplied five times, from 1 to more than 4.5 billion. Over this time span the population of Europe increased six times, and of Europe and European occupied areas in the Western Hemisphere and Oceania combined about eight times. The population of North America increased about 160 times and that of Latin America about fourteen times. During the same period, the population of Asia increased by less than 4 times (however, this contrasts with what must have been a much less rapid increase earlier. The absolute increase in Asia however was very large.) In Africa, the population merely doubled. It is clear that greatly accelerated growth occurred first among the nations that first experienced modernization - the combination of "revolutions," including the agricultural revolution, commercial revolution, science revolution, and the technological revolution. Explosive population growth, th! e "vital revolution" - a pace of growth without precedent in long settled areas - did not approach nations in Asia, Latin America, and Africa, until after Wold War I and especially after World War II. Rapid growth has been one of the three related population phenomena generating public concern. The two other are the increasing concentration of people on a relatively small portion of the Earth's surface - a phenomenon of better urbanization and mertopolitanization and growing diversity of the people who share the same geographical area and increasingly, the same economic, social, and political systems. World population growth is entirely the result of natural increase - the excess of births over deaths. If mortality declines rapidly and there is a high birth rate in any given country, there will become a heavy child burden that marks the beginning of overpopulation. The reasons for this remarkable change are not entirely clear. One cause was certainly the widespread control and virtual elimination of Malaria and other insect-carried disease. Other causes were widespread use of vaccines and modern drugs in less developed countries. There also has been speculation that human beings have developed more immunity to some microbial diseases that the virulence of some microorganisms has declined. The disadvantages of high birth rate are not generally admitted for two reasons. First there is and ideological prejudice against admitting that a high birth rate can in any way be harmful, and so anti nationalist policy does not generally appeal to politicians. Secondly, there is widespre! ad belief that an ever-greater pool of manpower is a military and economic asset to a nation. It therefore comes as a shock to many people to hear it maintained that one of the demographic factors weakening a nation's powers is a birth. No one can maintain that a pre-industrial birth rate is always and in every way disadvantageous. In certain instances, it may be an asset. But an analysis of the effect of birth rates on a nation's efficiency will show that in most cases today the advantage lies with a low rather then a high rate. The rapid population growth has economic, social, and political effects. It also interacts with public education, health, and welfare, and the qualities in which people live. Economic Consequences: Rates of population growth in many less developed countries are at least half the rate of economic growth and in some cases equal the latter. Chiefly because of high fertility of these countries, the ratio of
Monday, February 24, 2020
Flannery O'Connor's A Good Man is Hard to Find - Essay Example The Grandmother is very irritating woman. During the car ride, she lies about the dimensions of a house just to make it sound more interesting to the children. And when she realizes that the house sheÃ¢â¬â¢s been bragging about is not even in that state, she panics and kicks the cage holding the cat. She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do that on purpose. She is annoying but she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t deserve to be shot three times in the chest. In fact she tries to make a connection with the Misfit during the confrontation and when she feels sorry for Misfit and about the way he has been treated all his life, she tries to physically touch him and at that moment MisfitÃ¢â¬â¢s henchmen shoot the old woman. It is very true that many people only claim to be Christians but in the dealings of their lives, their behavior, their conduct and their daily conversations are devoid of the spirit of Christianity. The grandmother is blessed with a loving son but she is not thankful for it and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually care about him. In fact she treats him as a tool and takes advantage of his obedience. In the book, after the car accident Misfit and his men seize the family and they take family members in the woods and shoot them. Seeing her fate very clear the grandmother suddenly remembers God and Jesus and turns soft. She asks Misfit to pray so that his soul may be spared for the sins he has committed all his life. A very religious and philosophical conversation takes place towards the end of the story between the Misfit and the Grandmother, where Misfit tries to mock Jesus by saying that he created a lot of confusion by raising dead people (in hidden words, he mocks the whole concept of heaven a nd hell and the day of judgment). To this, grandmother agrees somewhat by saying that probably he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t raise the dead after all but when she gets shot in the chest, she falls down with her legs crossed in to her grave, representing her faith in a dramatic and symbolic way. "Flannery
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Perception and Cognition - Essay Example The things we do consciously are influenced by the unconscious mind - our actions are the effects of stimuli which we are unaware of. There have been various interpretations in this regard. According to cognitive psychology, unconscious information processing likened to subliminal message processing (idea opposed by authors because they thought the definition was unnatural and restrictive). (09No) In Evolution: evolutionary changes occurred as a result of unconscious processes - there was no conscious thought that went into evolution and adaptation; For example, things like culture and early learning - we don't think about our culture - we are surrounded by it from an early age and information gets stored in our unconscious mind without our being aware of it - it is inherent. Same with Early Learning - we learn lots of things at a very young age, which are inherent traits of human kind, which we again, don't consciously think about (for instance, kids, especially infants, learn behavior by "passive imitation" of parents or friends; as infants we unconsciously learn by experience - as we grow up, those learned behaviors/actions/values stay with us, and are stored in the unconscious mind - later in life, we don't consciously think about these things - we just know them to be true) All these characteristics have been oft associate... There is a distinct line between conscious and unconscious goal pursuit. Keeping in perspective the recent evolutionary arrival of modes of though and behavior, it is probably that the conscious goal is directly or indirectly related to unconscious motivational structures. We are predisposed, conditioned (genetically predisposed - this is an effect of evolution) as a human race to prefer certain "aspects of our environment over others" -these are perhaps linked to the behaviors we learn as infants. For instance in various Muslim families, it has been inculcated in the minds of their females that physical intimacy with men is a no and nor are revealing clothes allowed. They are asked to adapt and mould themselves in this peculiar lifestyle where they shun themselves from the society in general and set their goal in such a way where nurturing their kids and serving their husbands in future becomes central to their survival. This is result of environmental and social pressure most of which becomes innate in the female inhabitant in such families. (Iceberg Metaphor and Unconscious Mind) Another theory suggests that impulse to act upon a stimuli is an unconscious behavior - the impulse is produced unconsciously, and then the conscious mind takes over; plethora of impulses that are driven by behavioral and cultural norms and or our values/traditions. Some people react at the sight of lizards or their mention without even without seeing the poor animal. This is because a certain kind of unconscious fear exists in the back of their mind about it. Their reaction for the same is involuntary. It rests at the back of their mind subconsciously which tends to act as prime motivator for the same. We are unconsciously inclined towards certain things over others (certain